Approach that allows anyone to apply and register their information to be considered for potential inclusion in one or more programs. Three key features characterize on-demand approaches: (1) the impetus for initiating the engagement is driven by the clients (not the “state”), who take the initiative to apply; (2) specific clients engage on their own; and (3) timing: with the on-demand approach, specific clients engage in intake and registration on their own timing. While on-demand approaches are driven largely by the way intake and registration is carried out, they also influence other phases of the delivery chain. See also administrator-driven approach.
One form of “integrated service provision” whereby all services are co-located, so the client needs to go to only one place for support. In some cases, these may be for both labor and social benefits and services together. In other cases, they may be for labor services separately (e.g., job centers). Other modalities combine social and health benefits and services (such as the “department of health and human services” that is common in the United States and Australia).
A data structure that allows fast analytical processing from multiple perspectives, usually using star or snowflake schema, stored as metadata, from which one can pivot the data in many ways.
Software developed by informal collaborative networks of programmers and are usually free. Anyone is freely licensed to use, copy, study, distribute, and change the software in any way, and the source code is openly shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design of the software. For more details and examples of open-source software, visit https://opensource.com/ resources/what-open-source
- Free and open source (FOSS). Refers to user’s freedom to copy and reuse the software.
- Free/libre open source software (FLOSS). Emphasizes the value of libre (free), that is, with few or no restrictions.
Deliberate efforts to reach and inform intended populations and vulnerable groups about social protection programs and delivery systems so that they are aware, informed, able, and encouraged to engage.
An arrangement where an entity decides to contract out the supply of services (sometimes goods) necessary to its operation to another entity, which then carries out the work using its own staff and equipment.
Measures, tools, and systems to prevent, detect, deter, and monitor error, fraud, and corruption (EFC).